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Civil War Diary of Sgt. George Christopher Hamman
Company F, 10th Virginia Volunteer Regiment
Army of Northern Virginia, C.S.A.
1862 - 1863

Transcribed from the Original by William J. Smith
Marion, Ohio, July 1982
Submitted by George C. Hamman's great-great granddaughter
Patti Smith
© 2000 - 2004

Special Note: words that are enclosed in [ ] are notes hand written by my uncle William Smith.

July 11th 1862 (Richmond, Virginia)

Yesterday after we got into camp, I obtained a pass from COL. WALKER and left for Richmond where I arrived about one o'clock. Met CAPT. KIBLER. Strolled about the city and at night went to the theater. Very good. Saw Katie Edler. The Washington Monument is the most perfect piece of workmanship I have ever seen.

July 12th 1862

Took a general view of the city - Bought a hat for $5.00 and two volumes of Cooper's novels. "The Sea Lions" and [Satinstoe]. Returned to camp - found 15 of the boys sick - sick myself.

July 13th 1862 - Sunday

Inspection today - nothing else worth of note.

July 14th 1862

Three drills today & dress parade. Orders to cook up two day rations & ready to leave on train tomorrow morning. Yankees in Gordonsville.

July 15th 1862

Most of the troops left here today & we have been anxiously awaiting our turn, but got orders a little while ago that we would not leave here until five o'clock in the morning. Fixed up a bunk and were no more done than it commenced raining. Rained right hard.

July 16th 1862

Left camp this morning at 5 o'clock - Arrived in Richmond at 7 o'clock. Stacked ammo in capitol square. Remained there about 1 ½ hours during which time I got several bottles of whiskey in capitol. Left Richmond about 9 o'clock and are now about 20 miles from there at Taylorsville Station, third station from Richmond. D.N. REAM and I had a little quarrel. Remained over night at Taylorsville. Were busy taking other troops.

July 17th 1862

Left Taylorsville at 11 o'clock. Now 4 o'clock and are camped half mile from Louisa Court House, about 64 miles from Richmond - 14 miles from Gordonsville. Caught some nice catfish this morning.

July 18th 1862

Did not move today. Drew no rations yesterday nor have we drawn any as yet today and it is now nearly night. I went out in the country with some of our boys and got our dinner - and a good one it was. Some of the boys are complaining very much about it and I think it a shame - Two days without rations. Will have them now soon. Rained nearly all day & last night & yesterday & doesn't look like stopping yet. Camped not more than ten steps from railroad - trains passing every hour.

July 19th 1862

Are now at Gordonsville - Marched from Louisa C. House on railroad - other road being very muddy - very tiresome - 14 miles. GEN. EWELL had a skirmish with enemy yesterday and captured some prisoners. Have GEN. EWELL, WHITING, LONGSTREET & JACKSONS division here. Heard enemy had left valley.

July 20th 1862 - Sunday

Nothing done today but inspection at six o'clock. Rain a good shower. Cooked two days rations this evening. Know not where we are going. This morning Yankees came nigh capturing passenger train. Train just now came from Louisa C. House & reported that 300 cavalry dashed up to the station, burnt it & telegraph office & left.

July 21st 1862

One year ago today, we were in battle of Manassas. Now are on road to Madison Court House & also leads to New Market - hope we are going to latter. Yankees five miles below Madison. Are now five miles from Gordonsville encamped on COL. MAGRUDERS farm.

July 22nd 1862

Heard this morning we were to remain here for some time. Hope we will - pleasant place - took some fish yesterday & also today - caught a mess each time. Orders for usual drills tomorrow.

July 23rd 1862

Nothing done but drill today. Battalion Drill dispensed with on account of rain, as also Dress Parade. Good blackberry pudding this evening - sugar 90 cts. a pound in camp. More blackberries here than I ever saw.

July 24th 1862

Nothing done but drill today - which is pretty hard.

July 25th 1862

Rained last night, but had regular drills. We drill in COL. MAGRUDERS yard. Right after Battalion Drill, we had Dress Parade. Apple cobbler for supper - sugar $1.00 a pound. Rec. Letter from Kate today.

July 26th 1862

Were aroused from our slumber this morning at 3 o'clock by the announcement of "BEAT THE DRUMS AND BE READY TO LEAVE IN 15 MINUTES". Up we jumped conjecturing as to where we were going. We, however, did not leave until 9 o'clock. Marched about 4 miles to where we intended to give Yankees a fight - four miles from Orange Court House. Remained there some time when dispatch came that enemy had gone back - so we marched back to old campground - much to our delight. Rained several very hard showers.

July 27th 1862 - Sunday

Inspection this morning. Wrote letter to KATE [FRAVEL] & one to W.S. ARTHUR. Sent by W. CLINE. Good apple cobbler for dinner.

July 28th 1862

Regular drill today. Balance of day spend in ? play. Just laid down to sleep when orders came to cook up all rations on had and be ready to leave at sun up in morning.

July 29 1862

Left camp at sun up. Marched to Gordonsville - saw trains there. Thought we were going to valley, but trains had just brought part of GEN. HILLS Division from Richmond and left in a few minutes to bring remainder. Left Gordonsville on Louisa C.H. Road but turned off on Mechanicsville Road. Marched about 10 miles and are now in camp about one mile from Mechanicsville.

July 30th 1862

Order to clean up camp this morning. Have it clean now & looks like encamping for some time. Hope we will - good camping ground. I believe no troops here but JACKSON's Division. NIEL took our old place 4 miles north of Gordonsville. Came here to recruit army. Apple dumplings for supper - cucumbers & onions & tomorrow we get some more nice things.

July 31st 1862

Nothing done today. One drill & dress parade. On guard tonight & tomorrow.

August 1st 1862

Usual avocations today though I did not engage in them, being on guard.

August 2nd 1862

Nothing done but drill today. Understood our army was all moving from Richmond to this point - following McClellan who, they say, is reinforcing Pope at Culpepper.

August 3rd 1862 - Sunday

No drills today, but inspection & preaching. Spent day in reading. Rained a little shower this evening.

August 4th 1862

Rained very hard last night. Usual drills. Very warm.

August 5th 1862

Had orders to leave at 3 o'clock. As soon as we had bunks torn down & baggage loaded - received orders to put them up again and be ready to march at 5 o'clock in morning. Heard we were going to old camp north of Gordonsville. This is a nice camp and am sorry to leave it.

August 6th 1862

We are now in our old camp again (Camp Triscottie) 4 miles north of Gordonsville.

August 7th 1862

Two drills this morning. Directly after dinner received two days ration & orders to cook them & be ready to march in a moment. Nearly sundown. Regiments are all out in road awaiting orders. Left at sun down. Marched about 8 miles to within a mile & a half of Orange C.H. Encamped for the night.

August 8th 1862

Left camp at sunup. Heard at Orange C.H. that Yankees were only three miles from town on Rapiddam River. Marched 3 miles. Crossed river (had to wade) and are encamped about a mile north of river.

August 9 1862

Were called up at one o'clock. There was heavy pickett firing - marched out, took our positions and remained there until daylight, then marched back to camp, Yankees having left. We all certainly thought to get in a fight before daylight. Yankees thought our camp was only a cavalry camp and thought of surprising it, but found too much here for them. Left camp at about 8 o'clock. Marched in the direction of Culpepper. Came upon enemy about 5 miles of Culpepper C. House, took our positions in line of battle, waited until 1 ½ hours before sundown (cool of evening) attacked them, whipped them out by dark. Cannonading was tolerably heavy. Killed a great many of our men while lying in woods supporting battery, by shell. Our brigade opened the ball - Yankees came marching across a field (we were in edge of woods waiting for them). We fired into them, broke their ranks and caused considerable confusion among them. However, they were brave, & marched off. The Alabama Regiment on our right gave way, and the Yankees came up on the right of our regiment which was compelled to fall back. 3 Companies on the left, ours included, however, remained for some time, when we were also compelled to fall back. The main body of the regiment left us. We reformed with part of the 33rd VA and marched up and played havoc among them. Drove them back across field a distance by ?00 yards - when assistance came. We had no commander, but just went at it on our own hook. We (sorry for it) had ED. KENDRICK killed & ED. W. BUSHONG wounded in thigh, not dangerously, several stunned by the explosion of shells. Fighting was very hard and I cannot estimate our loss nor that of the Yankees, but I know theirs to be heavier than ours. The battle will be known as the "Battle of Springfield Farm". Our Company took some 30 or more prisoners. I enjoyed the fight more than any I have been in yet. It was a prettier fight. The loss of the regiment is some sixty killed & wounded. The Page Company [K] lost more than any other. LEUT. MAUCK killed - LEUT. GRAYSON mortally wounded, LEUT. PITTMAN wounded in leg (since amputated) orderly killed. I fired 15 rounds, as did most of the boys. BRIG. GEN. WINDER of 1st Brigade, Jackson Division was killed early in the action by shell fire. CAPT. PENDLETON & BRIG. GEN. TALISFERRO'S staff was wounded in leg (since amputated).

August 10th 1862 - Sunday

Today we moved (that is, Jacksons Division) back about two miles where we were drawn up in line of battle. We were not there long before we had quite a stampede among the wagons and stragglers, the report having came that the Yankees were coming in great haste. We, however quieted this when the day passed off without anymore disturbance, except a good soaking we got by rain.

August 11th

Everything quiet today. GENERAL MILROY, GEN. HATCH and some other Gen. Came over with some men under a flag of truce to bury their dead. They report 500 killed dead on the field - right smart loss. Our Brigade has fought the same Yankee Brigade three times now & whipped them each time - at McDowell, at Winchester and here (Springfield Farm). A Sergeant of the regiment we fought here was among the men who came over and William Campbell talked to him. He said they lost over 400 men in his regiment in killed & wounded & prisoners. I heard today that GEN. LONGSTREET was advancing by way of Fredricksburg and that we intended attacking the Yankees by three points. If this be true I can account for our idleness for several days. Four o'clock, orders to be ready to move at a moments warning.

August 12th 1862

Were kept up all night under orders to move and then did not leave until after sunrise this morning. Are now in our old camp at MAGRUDERS again after a march of near 20 miles in mud & rain. Did not give us time to cross Robertson & Rapidan Rivers on logs, but made us wade with shoes and all on. Very warm.

August 13th 1862

Nothing more done today. Still more troops coming from Richmond and all the hard fighting will be done here.

August 14th 1862

I omitted here to fore to mention the deaths of HARVEY HOOVER in Richmond on July 23rd & of ED CATON on July 31st last. No drills today.

August 15th 1862

Orders to cook two days rations - W. SAUN & W. SAGER here. Wrote letter to KATE (FRAVEL). Sent $20 in Confederate notes home. Nos. 35573 &35514 - 2 - $10 notes.

August 16th 1862

Left camp about an hour after sunrise. Now nearly sun down and are about 5 miles east of Orange C.H. on Fredricksburg Road. I think we are going to operate against GEN. BURNSIDE who is coming to reinforce POPE. Marched until 8 o'clock & then left Fred. Road a mile to our right & encamped.

August 17th 1862

Rested today. Went after roasting ears and from a high hill could see Yankee encampment - see tents - when done getting corn, tents were down - Yankees moving - I know not where.

August 18th 1862

Expected to leave early this morning and in fact expected to hear cannon roar long before now. Is now 2 o'clock and are still lying here resting. Don't think we will leave here today. Drew 2 days rations yesterday and have now drawn 2 days more. Had crackers & bacon - Nights very cool now.

August 19th 1862

Yesterday evening the news came that three of our regiment were to be shot this evening at five o'clock. Charge desertion. One by name of RODECAP who has been handcuffed for some time, made his escape last night. The other two have been taking it very hard all day. COL. WALKER this morning went to see GEN JACKSON to try & have them reprieved (two of them) and GEN. JACKSON told him the men ought to be hung and he (COL. WALKER) resign. I believe he is going to resign, at least he said he would. (I do not think the two should be shot but RODECAP deserves it). Several in other regiments are to be shot this evening also. This is just what I have been looking for. I told many of the boys so. Everything perfectly quiet in the regiment today, as though everyone was in mourning - at five o'clock they were taken out (poor fellows), sentence read to them by CAPT. KIBLER who was Provost Marshall, prayer read by preacher, tied to a stake and shot. One of them after he was shot raised up again but soon fell. A few minutes afterwards the man in the 5th Regiment was brought out and shot near by. He was, or appeared to be, perfectly unconcerned - did not have him tied nor did they tie him to a stake. I saw them all three shot. Orders to move tonight. On guard tonight.

August 20th 1862

Left camp early. Are now at Stephensburg - 4 miles south of Brandy Station & seven miles east of Culpepper C.H. Our cavalry had right hard skirmish with enemy. Several killed & some wounded.

August 21st 1862

Are now in sight of our old camp on Rappahannock River. Our division in advance. Cavalry are ahead skirmishing the woods on this side of river. I think main force has all crossed river. Artillery going ahead to shell woods. Cannonading commenced at 15 minutes to 10 o'clock. Our cavalry and some artillery crossed river an hour after. Cannonading commenced. We are on the reserve of skirmishers that went out a few minutes ago. Hear right heavy musketry firing. Just now 3 o'clock. Very heavy skirmishing all day but across river. We are now out on river bank but no Yankees here yet but hear them coming. Dark now but still cannonading.

August 22nd 1862

Were taken to camp about 1 o'clock. Cannonading commenced again early this morning at this point but did not continue long. Several men killed. Cannonading very heavy on our left. We are now moving in that direction. 20 after 5 o'clock. Heavy infantry firing, but did not last long. EWELL Division engaged. Yankees charged our men and we withstood the charge. Troops all crossed Hazel River today. Our division just now crossed. Expect heavy work tomorrow. Rained this evening.

August 23rd 1862

Are now moving still farther to left for purpose of crossing Rappahannock River. Cannonading on our right this morning. Dreamed last night I was married to KATE (FRAVEL). GEN STUART, I heard, was down at Plain Station on Mg. R.R. Captured several hundred prisoners, wagons now encamped 1 ½ miles from river. River too high to cross. We have been without rations all day on account of Hazel River being too high for wagons to cross. Drew flour this evening but had to bake it on sticks. Rained today.

August 24th 1862

Slept rather hard last night. I was wet and so were bed clothes. Not been perfectly dry for a week. Regiment formed ready to start. Dreamed of KATE again last night. Rec. two letters from her today. We are now cooking two days rations or have drawn them. Cannonading very heavy this morning close by us. ED. ALBERT & BARYETT are here. Saw my brother. Shells made us move.

August 25th 1862

Started early this morning from Jefferson[ton] went through [Amissville] from there to Rappahannock River, crossed it then went through Orlean and thence to near Salem Station on N.W. RR. This is quite a flank move. Do not know what it will result in. We are certainly ahead of the Yankees. Some distance now. Marched about 25 miles. Stopped at 10 o'clock.

August 26th 1862

Passed through Salem to [White] Plains to Broadrun [Bull Run] to Thoroughfare to Haymarket to Gainsville to within two miles of Bristoe Station on O&A RR. A distance of nigh 30 miles. Marched till 12 o'clock. Saw some pretty ladies. Two deserters came to us this evening. Report enemy force 80,000 men.

August 27th 1862

Cannonading commenced this morning down toward Manassas, Ewell's ahead. We are now quite in the rear of the Yankees. They are camped at Warrenton Junction. We are guarding the prisoners (sorry for it). 3 o'clock are now at Manassas Junction where we took about 100 car loads of stores, also several depots filled. Sutter stores of . We had ground coffee, sugar, pickles, molasses & a little of most everything issued to us. We had not had anything to eat for nigh 24 hours & of course pitched in very heavy. This morning we burned 3 trains of cars loaded. We stopped them at Bristoe Station. I have no doubt we will be obliged to burn what we have taken here. Cannonading is very heavy above Bristol now.

August 28th 1862

Laid down to sleep but were not much more than asleep when we were wakened up & ordered to move. Marched until nigh daylight. Went into camp after hard march. Did burn trains at Manassas last night. Crossed battle field of Manassas, our division is guarding wagon trains. Are some 8 or 10 miles north of Manassas. Are now drawn up in line of battle about ? miles from where camped...dodging about until near sundown when we were marched back about 2 miles where we met NIELS & EWELLS Divisions. Were directly drawn up in line of battle when batteries commenced shelling. In a few minutes we were in the thick of the fight. Our division was the only one engaged except a few of EWELL's men. It lasted about an hour. Firing ceased and we held possession of the battle field. Regimental loss about 20 killed, 30 wounded. Our Company LEUT. REAM wounded in thigh & hand. No one else hurt but 13 in ranks. Yankee loss very great, ours not so great. Took a great many prisoners. Took several hundred runaway Negroes the other day below Manassas. Yankees have large force.

August 29th 1862

Our regiment detailed to bury the dead but shelling commenced and we were obliged to stop. Very heavy cannonading all day - now 2 o'clock. LONGSTREET has arrived and is now working his way around of the enemies left flank. Expect heavy work yet tonight. Had a heavy little fight. Sorry to say PHILIP Y. HACKMAN was instantly killed and I made a very narrow escape, a shell striking within a foot of me. Knocked me down, having struck me on the neck & arm, bruising me smartly.

August 30th 1862

Did not feel well enough to go with regiment today. Heard Picket firing until 3 o'clock when the fight commenced lasting 4 hours. Hard fighting - cannonading I think as heavy as I ever heard. Fought on old battle ground of the July 21st, 1861. Whipped Yankees shameful. Fight of July 21st ‘61 nothing to compare with this. Loss very heavy, but some say enemy loss 15 to 1 killed. Took several batteries, COL. BAYLOR & COL. BOTTS killed. Loss in officers on our side great.

August 31st 1862 - Sunday

Battle ground horrible to look at. More dead Yankees than I ever saw on one battle field. Marched about 10 miles until 11 o'clock at night and are now on Little River Turnpike, marching towards Fairfax Court House.

September 1st 1862

100 of our brigade were thrown out as skirmishers and about 4 o'clock the Yankees threw out theirs - soon after firing commenced and in a short time, the infantry was engaged and fighting became general. We then went back and joined our regiment which was drawn up in line of battle but did not engage in the fight. Fight occurred on our old picket grounds near "Major Mollies". Yankees left.

September 2nd 1862

Are now drawn up in line of battle again on same ground we were yesterday.

September 3rd 1862

Remained in line of battle all night. Left this morning about 9 o'clock. Took road to Drainsville. Are now encamped at Drainsville 3 miles from Potomac River.

September 4th 1862

Started at 5 ½ this morning and are now 2 miles north of Leesburg. Quite a pretty place, and what makes it more so is the pretty ladies. Ladies admired our Virginia Flag and the way it was shot to pieces.

September 5th 1862

Left camp below Leesburg about 8 ½ o'clock. Our regiment was the first to cross at this ford and our band hailed our landing by playing the appropriate air "Maryland, My Maryland". We had to wade the Potomac a distance of 4 or 5 hundred yard. We captured a lot of canal boats and a number of watermelon of which we had a nice treat. I suppose the boys will now sing "Carry Me Back to Old Virginia" instead of "Maryland". We crossed with 18 of our company. Persons treated us very kindly, giving us to eat of the best sort.

September 6th 1862

Are now two miles below Frederick City on the road to Baltimore. Frederick City is a beautiful place - right pretty ladies. One lady was throwing kisses to us as we passed.

September 7th 1862

Writing discharges all day. Nothing more. Had a great many visitors, ladies & gentlemen.

September 8th 1862

Everything remained quiet until about 4 o'clock when we were suddenly ordered to fall in & were marched to the city - where we found out that two regiments were all that were wanted for picket duty. So we came back to camp - 4 miles walk for nothing. There have been 4 companies raised in Frederick City & vicinity under LEUT. GOV. LOWE and more flocking in rapidly. Pennsylvanians are also flocking to our standard.

September 9th 1862

Orders to leave in morning at 3 o'clock.

September 10th 1862

Are now in sight of Boonesborough on Hagerstown Turnpike. Came in contact with Yankee cavalry here. Killed one - balance left fouble quick. Marched 18 miles. Cooking 3 days rations

September 11th 1862

Left camp at 5 o'clock, took Williamsport Road. Arrived Williamsport at 12 o'clock and to our surprise crossed the Potomac into Virginia again and are now about 2 ½ miles from Hedgesville & North Mountain Station on B&O RR, marched 20 miles crossed river at 12 o'clock again.

September 12th 1862

Marched about 9 miles today. Are now within 9 miles of Martinsburg. Encamped. Yanks left last night.

September 13th 1862

Marched to town early and much to our agreeable surprise, we were left here and soon sent up the railroad (our regiment) about 10 miles to burn a bridge but found that the Yankees were too strong for us. Returned to town after tearing up the railroad tracks and destroying some trestle work. Marched 20 miles. Heard cannonading towards Harpers Ferry.

September 14th 1862

Were put into some public building to camp. Agreeable. I was detailed to go home after absentees. Will start in a few minutes. 12 o'clock. Left 3 ½ o'clock. Marched 16 miles until 8 o'clock.

September 15th 1862

Arrived in Woodstock at sundown.

November 6th 1862

Up to this date I spent my time in Woodstock quite pleasantly. Left home at ten o'clock, arrived in camp after dark. Camp near Millwood, 11 miles from New Town.

November 7th 1862

Very cold & snowed all day.

November 8th 1862

Very cold. Looks like snow again. Received orders to be ready to move tomorrow at nine.

November 9th 1862 - Sunday

Were lying in camp awaiting orders to move, but received none. After dark, orders came to move in morning at 5 o'clock.

November 10th 1862

Started at 8 o'clock. Marched to Winchester, took Pugh Town Road and are now encamped about 3 ½ miles from Winchester Road. Wrote a note to Kate.

November 11th 1862

Nothing done in camp until 10 o'clock when 18 of the company were ordered on picket. Leave in a few minutes. Went 2 ½ miles and crossed a small mountain. Dark now are sitting by fire enjoying a chat. Jim ALBERT, JNS CLINEDINST, JIM CLINEDINST, JN REED.

November 12th 1862

Remained on until this evening - rain - DAVIS REAM & PHIL RIDDLE are here.

November 13th 1862

Three drills company drill before breakfast - Battalion at nine & Company at 2 o'clock. LEUT. FOUNTAIN & PHIL MAGRUDER came today. WALTER ORNDORFF sent home sick.

November 14th 1862

Nothing but regular drills.

November 15th 1862


November 16th 1862

Nothing done today but inspections.

November 17th 1862

Regular drills. Some of the boys on guard. I was in Winchester. Rained nearly all day. Was at Butler's concert.

November 18th 1862

Started on Picket at three, now 6 o'clock. Raining.

November 19th 1862

Are now sitting around picket fire enjoying ourselves playing cards etc. Relieved at 4 o'clock and are now in camp.

November 20th 1862

Ordered to Winchester on Provost Guard. We had just gotten in to quarters when orders were given to be ready to march. Left town a mile and cooked days rations.

November 21st 1862

Marched to Middletown. Our company got permission to go home. Left at 8 o'clock at night and arrived home 4 o'clock in morning.

November 22nd 1862

Army marched to this place. (Woodstock)

November 23rd 1862 - Sunday

Company left with army, but I did not. Army marched above Mt. Jackson.

November 24th 1862

Army marched to Shenandoah River in Page Co. I left home went to top of Massanutten Mountain.

November 25th 1862

Army marched to east side of Blue Ridge where I caught up with them.

November 26th 1862

Marched to Madison C.H.

November 27th 1862

Rested today.

November 28th 1862

Marched to within 5 miles of Orange C.H.

November 29th & 30th 1862

Marched during these days in direction of Fredericksburg.

December 1st & 2nd 1862

Marched to within 2 miles of Guinea Depot on Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac RR.

December 3rd & 4th 1862

Rested - nothing important going on.

December 6th, 7th, 8th & 9th 1862

Still nothing doing.

December 10th 1862

Preparations made for new camp ½ mile from this.

December 11th 1862 -Thursday

Heavy cannonading commenced at 3 ½ o'clock this morning in the direction of Fredericksburg. Orders to cook 2 days rations and be ready to move at a moments notice. 10 o'clock, firing at the rate of 40 per minute still continues. Firing ceased at 11 o'clock & commenced again before dark, but only for a short time.

December 12th 1862

Started before sunrise and marched to within four miles of Fredericksburg when we halted. Some skirmishing during the day & some cannonading. Went on picket.

December 13th 1862

Cannonading commenced at 9 o'clock this morning & we were taken back to our regiment. We are supporting our battery. Some infantry fighting, Yankees very much worsted. Our loss estimated at 1000 killed & wounded. Proportion of killed small. Yankee loss much heavier.

December 14th 1862 - Sunday

Our Division taken in advance today. Line along railroad nothing but skirmishing today. Some cannonading. We permitted Yankees to come to our line and take off wounded. Afterwards a flag of truce was accepted. Object was to bury dead and carry off remainder of wounded. Day closed without a fight which was a very agreeable surprise.

December 15th 1862

Were relieved this morning by A.P. NIEL'S [Hill] Division. We are now at the rear line of battle. We are now a mile from battle field. Two lines of battle in front of us. 3 o'clock. Some cannonading heard just now. Very windy but right pleasant. Some rumors from the front but nothing reliable.

December 16th 1862

Reported that Yankees have crossed the river. Reliable. Now have orders to march. On the road to Port Royal. Marched 12 miles and are now encamped for night 12 miles from Port Royal - near Moss Landing.

December 17th 1862

Did not move today - Very cold.

December 18th 1862

Moved about 200 yards to separate regiments. Wagons came with baggage.

December 19th & 20th 1862

Nothing done - Loafing in camp.

December 21st 1862 - Sunday

Spent day quietly in camp, I am on guard.

December 22nd 1862

Orders for picket - leave in few minutes. Are now six miles from camp. On reserve.

December 23rd 1862

Still on reserve. Some of the boys working on breastworks last night.

December 24th 1862

We are now on picket. 2 Regts. I am on duty - have 2 posts right on river bank. Yankees on opposite bank.

December 25th 1862

This is one way of spending Christmas. Not quite as pleasant as last Christmas at Manassas in winter quarters. Nothing to drink and not much to eat. More wild ducks here than I ever saw before. I believe I have seen a million of them. Rappahannock River about 300 yards wide here and very deep. Talk to Yankees across river & sometimes they come over to us & our boys go over to them. FOUNTAIN & PETE CONRAD sent letters to Maryland. PETE took them over and gave them to the Yankees to mail for them.

December 26th 1862

On reserve today.

December 27th 1862

Were relieved by 4th Brigade today - are now in new camp again.

December 28th 1862 - Sunday

Received letter from Kate today & answered it. Weather pleasant.

December 29th 1862

Nothing done today. After night they came for me to go on brigade guard.

December 30th 1862

Relieved of guard this evening. Nothing of importance today.

December 31st 1862

Last day of 1862. Will have eggnog tomorrow.

January 1st 1863

Eggnog today. Paid $25. for a half gallon of brandy. Not much going on. Not as good a time as we had last New Year at Manassas.

January 2nd 1863

Nothing Done.

January 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th 1863

Nothing worthy of note.

January 8th 1863

Commenced drilling again. Boys here nearly all built winter quarters. W. WELCH here today.

January 9th & 10th 1863

Nothing of importance. Rained all day & night.

January 11th 1863

Nothing done today. Orders for inspection but had none.

January 12th 1863

On guard again. Nothing worthy of note.

January 13th 1863

On guard again - nothing important - general inspection today.

January 14th, 15th, 16th 17th 1863

Nothing of importance occurred.

January 18th 1863 - Sunday

On picket again. Not more than 1 ½ miles to camp. Dull Sunday on picket. Pretty cold. Get oysters from Port Royal now at $6.00 a gallon. Took 10 men and myself out about dusk. Walked 2 or 3 miles to river.

January 19th 1863

Talked across river with Yankees. Relieved at 9 o'clock. Am now in camp but must go on again tomorrow. Some five or six of us intend enlisting in Marine service if we can.

January 20th 1863

Nothing done today


January 21st 1863

Went on picket again today. Relieved at dark.

January 22nd 1863

Loafed in camp all day.

January 23rd 1863

Went on picket again today - no rain.

January 24th 1863

Relieved this morning by 4th Brigade.

January 25th 1863

Quite pleasant today - like spring. Report Yankees were about to cross river, but unfounded.

January 26th 1863

Nothing done.

January 27th 1863

Rained nearly all day. Orders to keep in readiness to march to any part of our lines of defense at a moments warning.

January 28th 1863

Commenced snowing last night - snowed all day. Very little to eat now.

January 29th 1863

Snow this morning about eight inches deep. Clear sky and pleasant over head. Snow melting.

January 30th & 31st 1863

Nothing of importance. Grand snow balling.

February 1st & 2nd 1863

On guard at WARREN's headquarters. GEN. TALIEFERRO took command of Brigade again today.

February 3rd 1863

Very cold today. A little snow.

February 4th 1863

GEN. TALIEFERRO took his leave of us today. He made us a short speech in which he detailed the many noble deeds we had performed and was sorry to leave us, but hoped to soon be with us again. He said good bye boys, and we gave him three hearty cheers. Sorry to see him leave.

February 5th 1863

Snowing when we go up. 2 o'clock and is raining now.


February 6th & 7th 1863

Nothing of importance. DR. CAMPBELL left for home today.

February 8th 1863 - Sunday

Inspection today.

February 9th & 10th 1863

Nothing of importance.

February 11th 1863

Rained nearly all day. Reported that Yankees are leaving here.

February 12th & 13th 1863

Nothing of importance. Citizens are sending off their Negroes.

February 14th 1863

On picket again today.

February 15th 1863

Relieved today.

February 16th 1863

Dress parade - 3 men with barrel jackets and 1 with riding sail marched up and down in front of Regt.

February 17th 1863

Commenced snowing this morning about 3 o'clock. Snowed hard all day. Whole Regt. went on picket duty an hour ago. I would not go.

February 18th 1863

Boys still on picket. Rained nearly all day and fine prospects for raining all night.

February 19th, 20th & 21st 1863

Nothing of importance. LONGSTREETS Corps. is leaving. Going to Richmond. Don't know where from there.

February 22nd 1863

Commenced snowing about nine last night. 12 now and still snowing. About 12 inches deep now.

February 23rd 1863

Grand snowballing between Louisiana Brigade and ours, in which ours was successful.

February 24th 1863

Louisiana Regts 10th, 23rd & 39th against two North Carolina Regts - Snowballing. Our men drove both Carolina Regts into their camp. Capt. left today.

February 25th 1863

I with five men were detailed last night - reported this morning to LT. MORGAN of 1st North Carolina & found it was camp Provost Guard. Nothing much to do. Permanent Detail.

February 26th 1863

Rained last night and nearly all of today. Letter from Kate today.

February 27th 1863

LEUT. FOUNTAIN came today. DR. CAMPBELL brought another letter from Kate. My detail came this evening.

February 28th - March 3rd 1863

Nothing of importance - windy weather.

March 4th 1863

Brigade inspection by BRIG. INSPECTOR SAMUELS. Quite windy.

March 5th, 6th & 7th 1863

Nothing but wind.

March 8th 1863 - Sunday

Everything quiet today.

March 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th & 14th 1863

Nothing of importance. Some cannonading on the 11th.

March 15th 1863 - Sunday

Regt. Went on picket today. Thunder & hail this evening.

March 16th, 17th & 18th 1863

Nothing done.

March 19th 1863

Left camp this morning (Guinea Station) at 11 o'clock, Richmond at 9 o'clock, 6 hours running 60 miles.

March 20th 1863

Run about the city - snow 12 inches deep in Richmond.

March 21st 1863

Drunk (Egad)

March 22nd 1863 - Sunday

Nothing of importance.

March 23rd 1863

Had my pocket book stolen. Fortunately no money in it but a little silver (several dollars) & some papers which worth nothing to anybody buy myself. Sorry I lost them for I wished to preserve them.

March 24th 1863

Left Richmond this morning. Arrived at Guinea Station at 10 o'clock. Camp at 2 o'clock. Commenced raining.

March 25th 1863

Nothing of importance today.

March 26th 1863

Rained last night. Snow this morning. Went fishing this evening - caught 3 cat fish. JMS. BOWMAN caught one weighted 4 pounds.

March 27th 1863

Day appointed by PRESIDENT DAVIS for fasting & prayer. Went fishing this evening.

March 28th 1863

Did not return until this evening. Caught a large mess. Caught catfish that weighed 3 ½ pounds. Got wet, but had some brandy.

March 29th 1863 - Sunday

Rec. Letter from KATE [FRAVEL] and wrote one to Kate.

March 30th & 31st 1863

Nothing of importance.

April 1st 1863

Intended leaving for Richmond this morning but disappointed. Several boys badly fooled this morning.

April 2nd, 3rd & 4th 1863

Richmond and Staunton.

April 5th - 1863 - Sunday

New Market.

April 6th 1863


April 7th 1863


April 8th & 9th 1863

Nothing done.

April 10th 1863

6 Yankees came up with flag of truce leaving dispatch to GEN. JONES. Talked to them for 2 hours.

April 11th 1863

Regts. At Front Royal fell back to Big Springs.

April 12th 1863 - Sunday

Quite lonesome.

April 13th 1863

Court day.

April 14th 1863

Left Woodstock - went no farther than Edenburg.

April 15th 1863

Traveled all day through rain. Got to New Market about 2 o'clock.

April 16th 1863


April 17th 1863

Remained in Staunton today.

April 18th 1863

Left for Richmond, but met with an accident about 6 miles of Hanover Junction. Engine ran off tracks down an embankment 10 feet high and turned over - did not get away until 12 o'clock at night. Got to Richmond at 4 o'clock Sunday morning.

April 19th, 20th & 21st 1863

Remained in Richmond.

April 22nd 1863

Went to Petersburg. Run all over the city attending to business - thought we would get to leave for Farmsville yet this evening but could not get through with business.

April 23rd 1863

Left for Farmsville this evening at 5 o'clock. Arrived at 11 ½ o'clock - distance 75 miles.

April 24th 1863

Farmsville a right nice little place. Left for Petersburg at 9 o'clock. Arrived in Petersburg at 4 next morning.

April 25th 1863

Left Petersburg for Richmond at 4 o'clock. Richmond at 6 o'clock.

April 26th 1863 - Sunday

Saw the gun boat "Patrick Henry" this morning. Intended going to Drewrys Bluff but no boat down today.

April 27th 1863

Remained in Richmond.

April 28th 1863

Left for camp this morning. Camp at 2 o'clock.

April 29th 1863

Heavy cannonading this morning in direction of Fredericksburg. Orders to remain in camp & ready to march at a moments notice. Boys now ready to leave. Regt. Formed at 11 o'clock. Left camp at 12 o'clock. I did not go with them. Report came that fighting right hard. Wagons left at dusk.

April 30th 1863

I left camp with JNS. BOWMAN. Walked to Hamilton Crossing. Cannonading some little all day. No Infantry fighting.

May 1st 1863

Wagons were ordered to Guinea Station - are now here. No fighting today that I heard of. Troops moved up the river.

May 2nd 1863

Hear some cannonading this morning. Pretty hard fighting.

May 3rd 1863 - Sunday

Last night at 11 o'clock we were wakened up and ordered to hitch up in a hurry, that the Yankees were coming. Left at 12 - went about 2 miles and halted. This morning cannonading commenced with day light - very heavy. Are now at Guinea Station again. Routed Yankees on our extreme left, but report says they are getting the advantage of us at Fredericksburg. Now 6 o'clock - fight still going on, so report says. Wind being against us, we hear no artillery. GEN JACKSON reported wounded in left shoulder. BRIG. GEN. PAXTON 1st Brigade killed. Several of our skirmishers wounded. CAPT. KIBLER wounded yesterday and died this morning. Several of the boys wounded today, but not seriously.

May 4th 1863

JIM KIBLER wounded seriously. Some fifteen of our Company wounded. Our Brigade was in hottest of the fight and sustained heavy loss. COL. WALKER & MAJ. STOVER killed. COL. WARNER wounded. MAJ. STOVER shot 3 times before he gave up. LUTHER ANDERSON lost an arm.

May 5th 1863

Heavy rain today. All the wagons were drawn up together at the station fearing an attack from Yankee Cavalry. All the men with the wagons were armed to resist it - but had nothing to do. Prisoners coming in by the thousands.

May 6th 1863

Heavy cannonading reported this morning, but I did not hear it. Train came through from Richmond today again. Railroad fixed. Some of GEN. WISE's men came up from Richmond on train this evening.

May 7th, 8th & 9th 1863

During these days wagons went to Chancellorsville & I went to Regt. at United States Ford.

May 10th 1863

Nothing of much importance. Yankees came over with flag of truce - to bring blankets & provisions & medical stores over for their wounded - Granted.

May 11th 1863

Wrote letter to Kate and one to brother John. Went fishing and caught several eels & 1 large turtle & 3 ladies terrapins.

May 12th, 13th & 14th 1863

Nothing of importance. I am acting orderly now.

May 15th 1863

Orders this morning to remain in camp & be ready for a march at a moments warning. GEN. JACKSON died several days ago.

May 16th 1863

Not left camp yet and doubt whether we will shortly. This is camp near United States Ford.

May 17th & 18th 1863

Nothing worthy of note.

May 19th 1863

At 4 ½ o'clock went out to drill. While drilling, orders came to stop and cook rations. Now night and orders to move in 2 hours.

May 20th 1863

Last night marched about 4 miles. Today we marched pretty hard. 6 o'clock are now in camp with 1st & 4th Brigades about 2 miles from Hamilton Crossing. Completely used up.

May 21st 1863

Remained quietly in camp today.

May 22nd 1863 - Friday

Cleaned & fixed up camp today. Very tired.

May 23rd 1863

Company inspection this morning.

May 24th 1863

Nothing done.

May 25th & 26th 1863

Nothing of Importance

May 27th 1863

General review this evening by GEN. LEE of our Division. Grand sight. EDWARD JOHNSON our Major General now. COLSTON Brigadier.

May 28th 1863

Election Today. I was one of the clerks. SMITH for Governor - 134 - FR. LOURNAY - 34.

May 29th & 30th 1863

Nothing of importance.

May 31st 1863 - Sunday

Nothing done today.

June 1st 1863

Nothing today but Battalion Drill. GEN. COLSTON relieved of command of this Brigade on account of objections of both North Carolina Regts.

June 2nd 1863

Paid for rations while on furlough and I was paid for mine while home from Martinsburg. $30.00.

June 3rd 1863

W. WELSH came today. Orders to cook up 3 days rations & be ready to march at a moments warning.

June 4th 1863

Did not move today. Order to move at 2 o'clock in the morning.

June 5th 1863

Left camp at 2 o'clock this morning. Marched about 14 miles - by Spottsylvania C. House. 4 o'clock - now in camp. Some cannonading up the river today.

June 6th 1863

Left camp this morning before light. Marched about ½ mile, halted & brought back to camp again. Waggoners out grazing. Cannonading in direction of Fredericksburg this morning. Most of our forces left there. Was up nearly all night with ARCH RIDDEL. Left again at 3 o'clock & marched till 9 o'clock. Right hard rain. Some mistake in our not leaving in morning.

June 7th 1863 - Sunday

Left camp at sun up - am now in sight of P&A RR. 6 miles from Culpepper, marched about 20 miles.

June 8th 1863

Marched 6 miles north west of Culpepper C. House on New Market Turnpike. Think we are going to cross mountains. Letter from JIM ALBERT and one from Kate - through DR. CAMPBELL.

June 9th 1863

Some Cannonading in Rappahannock now.


Sgt. George Christopher Hamman
Co. F 10th Virginia Volunteer Regiment
General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia

"I served in Company F. 10th Va. Infantry under Stonewall Jackson until his death. Under General Lee all the time. Wounded at Gettysburg on 3rd of July 1863. After dark & were on the extreme left of Confederate Army. In prison at Camp Chase 4 months - Frt. Delaware nearly eight months. On crutches all the time. Served all the time with Jackson in the famous valley campaigns."

(S) G. C. Hamman




Roll Of Co. F 10th Virginia Volunteers

LieutenantN. Fountain 
SergeantsG. C. HammanL. C. Kniesley
Jns. Walters  
CorporalsBird, M.Cooper, J. E. L.
Kniesley, L. B.Dallas, Sagt. 
PrivatesBarr, W. H.Barton, Isaac
Blair, W. H.Bowman, Jn.Bowman, Jos.
Braggonier, D. H.Branum, A. G.Campbell, W. H. H.
Clinedinst, L. A.Conrad, P.Downey, A.
Estep, D.Evans, H.Fravel, H. C.
Frax, Jos.Hockman, W. Jr.Harris, T.
Hutchinson, AmosHutchinson, J. S.Kniesley, L. B.
Lewis, Jns.Lutz, IsaLutz, Thos.
Marston, Jos.McCauly, L.Miller, P. A.
Miller, Robt.Ott, G. G.Palmer, Jn.
Pitman, N.Reynard, G.Riddell, A. A.
Ross, D.Ruiker, JacobSager, Dallas
Sager, Jos.Saum, Danl.Saum, Mahlon
Shillingburg, A.Stauton, B. J.Vance, Saul
Walters, Jns.Welsh, Richd.Wierman, W. L.
Clower, Geo.Elick, J.Ferrell, O. P.

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Created January 25, 2000
Last updated November 11, 2015
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